Grammar bites - Linking
Checkpoint: choose the correct alternative in each sentence below. Next, you can check your answers by reading the explanations that follow.
- According to me/As I see it , none of them will hand in the essay on time. (see 2.)
- First he worked in Manchester and Glasgow and after it/after that in London, I suppose. (see 3.)
- They have been working as/like agents for the British Government in Dublin. (see 5/c)
- Now, you either correct these papers or go and do the shopping/or the shopping in the morning. (see 9.)
- Human beings interact with one another not only because of gravity but because of there is/-- love. (see 7.)
- Leave my house or else/or otherwise I'll call the police. (see 12.)
- He never turned up for classes let alone do/doing his homework. (see 11.)
- You can't leave now - above all/after all you are the teacher! (see 4.)
- We climbed and walked and set fires. Overall/Above all, it was quite a nice holiday. (see 1.)
- You are not supposed to enter this room except/except for when there's someone inside. (see 10.)
- He produced two wonderful essays as well as winning/won two maths competitions. (see 6.)
- Does anyone know the reason of/for this new regulation? (see 8.)
Explanations and illustration
1. ABOVE ALL - OVERALL
above all : legfőképp ; overall : összességében, általában
My new job requires expertise, patience and, above all , time.
Overall, the University's average rating has improved from 2.20 to 3.25.
(NOT My new job requires expertise, patience, and overall time.)
as I see it / in my opinion : ahogy én látom/véleményem szerint ; according to sb : vki szerint
As I see it / In my opinion , John shouldn't be given so much money.
(NOT According to my opinion /According to me, John shouldn't be given so much money.)
3. AFTER /AFTER THAT
after that : és azután ; after: miután
First we went to a restaurant and after that we went to the cinema.
(NOT First we went to a restaurant and after it/after then/after we went to the cinema.)
4. AFTER ALL
finally : végül ; after all : elvégre, végül is (pl. I can't beat her up every day, after all she is my sister.)
First I wrote short stories, memoirs, diary notes, and finally I started writing my first novel.
(NOT First I wrote short stories, memoirs, diary notes, and after all I started writing my first novel.)
5. AS - LIKE
a) I don't read as many books as I used to.
(NOT I don't read so many books like I used to.)
b) Before prepositions, we use as, and not like in comparative structures.
In 1998, as in 2000, he was fired.
(NOT In 1998, like in 2000, he was fired. )
c)work as : vmiként dolgozik ; work like : dolgozik, mint (pl. I was working like a madman right up to the minute of the show. - Dolgoztam, mint egy őrült.)
He has been working as a mechanic for ten years.
(NOT He has been working like a mechanic for ten years.)
6. AS WELL AS
as well as sb/(doing) sth : amellett, hogy; éppúgy, mint
Students took part in extracurricular activities, as well as doing their academic work.
(NOT Students took part in extracurricular activities, as well as did their academic work.)
7. BECAUSE - BECAUSE OF
because (kötőszó) : mert, mivel ; because + mondat, mivel a because kötőszó ; because of(prepozíció) : vmi miatt ; because of + főnév/névmás, mivel a because of prepozíció
He couldn't come to the meeting because he was ill/ because of his illness.
(NOT He couldn't come to the meeting because of he was ill.)
8. CAUSE - REASON
cause of sth : ok (mint ami vmit előidéz) ; reason for sth : ok (amely megmagyaráz vmit) ; (pl. He didn't give any reason for leaving the country.)
The cause of the explosion is still being investigated.
(NOT The reason for the explosion is still being investigated.)
9. EITHER ... OR
either ... or : vagy ... vagy
Be careful with the co-ordination of this structure. Compare:
a) You should study either maths or physics.
b) You should either study maths or read a book.
(NOT You should either study mathematics or physics.)
10. EXCEPT - EXCEPT FOR
If except is followed by a clause or a preposition, you should not use for after it.
He wouldn't study except when he had to write a test the next day.
(NOT He wouldn't study except for when he had to write a test the next day.)
11. LET ALONE
let alone : nem beszélve vmiről ; tagadás áll előtte
He didn't have the money to pay his bills, let alone buy another car.
(NOT He didn't have the money to pay his bills, let alone buying another car.)
12. OTHERWISE - OR - OR ELSE
or/or else/otherwise : (más)különben
Hurry up, otherwise/or/or else we'll miss the train.
(NOT Hurry up or otherwise we'll miss the train.)