Part I. Eisteddfod: A Cultural Competition The idea of the Eisteddfod is very ancient. It began as a challenge from the Norman invasion of Britain. Unfortunately much of the population of Wales was forced under Norman rule. But luckily the coming of the Normans brought about a brilliant new literary culture that was both Welsh and European at the same time. The new literary activity was started by monasteries because they were keen on literary traditions and they also liked to preserve those traditions. After this, the bardic orders (bárdi rendek) were revived and the expansion of those orders led to the first eisteddfod, as the bards were anxious to come together in the spirit of competition. The National Eisteddfod of Wales can be traced back to 1176 when the first Eisteddfod took place at the castle of Lord Rhys in Cardigan. There he held a big gathering to which poets and musicians were invited from all over the country. A chair at the Lord's table was awarded to the best poet and musician, a tradition that is still kept today. It is simply a competition, but the word translates as a "Chairing," where the winner is awarded a chair on which he is crowned. Winners of local eisteddfodau go on to compete on a county or regional level, eventually reaching the Royal National Eisteddfod of Wales in which they compete with others from all parts of the country. The "National" is the largest folk festival in Europe: it is organized in a different town in the first week in August each year. Feladatok a szöveghez erre!